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The group scientific activity is principally devoted to the study of electronic and magnetic properties of a large variety of solid materials ranging from  superconductors to organic and inorganic molecular adsorbates, ultra-thin oxide films and surface alloys.
We are interested in the chemical and electronic properties, in the surface reactivity, surface structure and dynamical processes.
To this purpose, we use the wide range of techniques, all available at the same ultra-high-vacuum endstation A: X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (including Angle-Resolved Photoelectron Spectroscopy and XPD), X-Ray Emission,  X-Ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism (in remanence), Low Energy Electron Diffraction, Molecular and Electron Beam Epitaxy.
Morover recently we Time-resolved X-Ray Absorption in the sub-nsec regime has been developed.
Research applications are targeted to surface and materials sciences, physics and chemistry, but the same x-ray spectroscopy techniques can be used and has been used also to address topics of geochemistry, mineralogy, medical science, environmental science, bio-chemistry, astrophysics...

Browse our Publications

Read our Highlights

Some of the funded projects/proposals

FIRB-Futuro in Ricerca


Beyond graphene (Full list of publications)
Publications funded by FIRB performed at the BACH beamline by the IOM-CNR BACH research unit
NOTE: Reseach on graphene at BACH is also supported by MIUR through the program `Progetto Premiale 2012' - Project ABNANOTECH

Project funded by MIUR
F. Bondino (local coordinator), S. NappiniE. Magnano IOM-CNR
L. Savio (local coordinator)- IMEM-CNR
S. Agnoli (local coordinator)-Università di Padova
C. Di Valentin (national coordinator)- Università di Milano Bicocca



IOM Start up


Determining the Density of electronic states of DNA - D3
Elena Magnano (coordinator), Silvia Nappini, Federica Bondino  Sede TS-TASC – Beamline BACH.
Paolo Umari, Stefano Baroni, Alessandra Magistrato  Sede TS-DEMOCRITOS
Marco Lazzarino, Gianluca Grenci Sede TS-TASC

Progetti in kind (PIK)


EX-PRO-REL: EXcitation PROcesses and RELaxation in

condensed matter and nanostructures: methodological,

instrumental, and scientific challenges

Coordinator: Federico Boscherini (Università di Bologna)
Partecipants: E. Magnano, F. Bondino

PRIN 2012


More information soon

Coordinator: M. Casarin (Università di Padova)
Local Coordinator: S. Pagliara (Università Cattolica di Brescia)
Partecipants: E. Magnano


A multi-technique approach for the study of solid samples and surfaces

X-ray emission spectroscopy

X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) provides a means of probing the partial occupied density of electronic states of a material. XES is element-specific and site-specific, making it a powerful tool for determining detailed electronic properties of materials. Emission spectroscopy can take the form of either resonant inelastic X-ray emission spectroscopy (RIXS) or non-resonant X-ray emission spectroscopy (NXES). Both spectroscopies involve the photonic promotion of a core level electron, and the measurement of the fluorescence that occurs as the electron relaxes into a lower-energy state.

X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy

X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) is a quantitative spectroscopic technique that measures the elemental composition, chemical state and electronic state of the elements within a material. XPS spectra are obtained by irradiating a material with a beam of X-rays while simultaneously measuring the kinetic energy and number of electrons that escape from the top layers of the material being analyzed. XPS  can be used to analyze the surface chemistry of a material in its "as received" state, or after some treatment, for example: fracturing, cutting or scraping in UHV to expose the bulk chemistry, ion beam etching to clean off some of the surface contamination, exposure to heat to study the changes due to heating, exposure to reactive gases. Temperature-programmed fast XPS measurements can be performed.

X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy

Soft-X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is technique for determining the local electronic structure of matter. XAS data are obtained by tuning the photon energy to a range where core electrons can be excited. Polarization-dependent XAS measuremnts can be performed.

Time-resolved Pump-Probe X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy

Time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy is the study of dynamic processes in materials or chemical compounds by means of x-ray abspectroscopic techniques. With the help of pulsed lasers, it is possible to study processes that occur on time scales in the sub-nanosec range.

Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy

Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) is an experimental technique to observe the distribution of the density of single-particle electronic excitations in the reciprocal space of solids.

ARPES gives information on the direction, speed and scattering process of valence electrons in the sample being studied (usually a solid). This means that information can be gained on both the energy and momentum of an electron, resulting in detailed information on band dispersion and Fermi surface. Both VUV ARPES and SOFT X-RAY ARPES can be performed.

X-ray magnetic circular dichroism

X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) is a difference spectrum of two x-ray absorption spectra (XAS) taken in a magnetic field, one taken with left circularly polarized light, and one with right circularly polarized light. By closely analyzing the difference in the XMCD spectrum, information can be obtained on the magnetic properties of the atom, such as its spin and orbital magnetic moment. 

Photoelectron Diffraction

When a radiation field excites an atomic core-level,  the outgoing electron goes through a scattering process with the surrounding atoms. The quantum-mechanical interference of the directly emitted component of the photo-ejected electron wave-field with other components scattered coherently (in space and time) from neighbor atoms produces a Photoelectron Diffraction (PhD, PED or XPD) pattern that is characteristic for each emitter site.


Since the formation of the first electron diffraction patterns in 1927 by Davisson and Germer, who explained the physical phenomenon in terms of wave nature of electrons, Low Energy Electron Diffraction has been widely used for surface crystallography studies. LEED is not only a powerful tool for the qualitative identification of surface symmetries and two-dimensional periodicities, but it is the most used technique for quantitative structure determination of ordered surfaces.

Last Updated on Monday, 22 October 2018 09:58