XRD1 Specifications

This page is a list of all the important parameters of the beamline and an indication of all the available instrumentation.
In case more details are needed you can contact directly the beamline scientists.

X-rays at sample

Energy range 4-21 keV
Photon Flux 1012-1013 ph/sec
Beam Size at sample 0.7 x 0.2 mm2 FWHM (unconstricted; precision slits for beam shaping)
Angular divergence 2.3 mrad x 0.3 mrad FWHM



Type Insertion Device: NdBFe Multipole Wiggler (Hybrid linear)
Section 5.2
Gap 22 mm
Poles 57
Period 140 mm
N. of periods 3 x 9.5
B0 1.607 T
Ec 4.27 keV
K 21
Source Size FWHM   2.0 x 0.37mm
Power (9mrad)   8.2 kW






Collimating Mirror

Cilindrical Mirror with 50 nm Pt-coating
Radius (calculated) = 14.8 km
Distance from source = 21873 mm
Incidence angle = 3 mrad


Fixed exit Double Crystal Si111 with LN2 cloosed loop cooling
Distance from source = 24059 mm
Energy range = 4-21 keV
Energy resolution = 10-4 for routine experiments and MAD experiments
Fine tuning with piezo actuator; feedback from 4-quadrant ion chamber
Focusing mirror Toridal Mirros with 50 nm Pt-coating
Tangential radius = 9.31 km
Sagittal radius = 55.27 mm
Distance from source = 28018 mm
Incidence angle = 3 mrad




Main Setup 

Gonimeter Type Huber Kappa Goniometer
Circle Axis Omega - Kappa - Phi - 2Theta (for detector) 
Two rotational stages assembled together in a 60° kappa geometry. 
A further circle rotates the Kappa unit around a horizontal axis.
Linear Axis XYZ-stage on top of Phi for the fine adjustment of the sample
Sphere of Confusion 20 µm
Standard Configurations Left (Kappa = 0) for data collection
Top (Kappa = -109.471 Omega = -125.264) for sample mounting
Bottom (Kappa = 109.471 Omega = 54.736) for grazing incidence experiments
Alignment Base 5 axis Optical Table for alignment of the Goniometer with Beam with feedback from 4-quadrants Ion Chambers (internally developed)
XYZ-stage with standard mount according to ACA/IUC for Huber/Hampton standard goniometer heads
Motor and signal currents are transmitted via slip rings enabling unrestricted kappa and phi rotation.


Goniometer Heads XYZ Standard; XYZ Short Standard; XYRyRx
Magnetic base or Brass specimen pin
Additional Stage XZTheta additional stage (used in general for High Pressure Cell alignment)
Temperature Control Oxford Cryostrem 700: N2 laminar flow for temperature range 80 – 400 K
Sample Changer Internally developed

Dectris Pilatus 2M (Main Detector)

Type CMOS hybrid-pixel technology operating in single-photon-counting mode
3 x 8 Modules
Sensor Si 320 µm thick (room temperature; water circuit)
Pixel Size 172 x 172 µm2
Point-spread function 1 pixel
Format 1475 x 1679 = 2476525 pixels
Area 254 x 289 mm2
Distance from sample 82 - 1060 mm
Intermodule gap x: 7 pixels, y: 17 pixels, 8.0% of total area
Dynamic Range 20 bits (1:1,048,576)
Readout time 3.6 ms (frame rate 30 Hz)
Adjustable threshold range 2- 20 keV (energy resolution 500 eV)
Energy range 3 - 30 keV  (quantum efficiency: 3 keV 80%; 8 keV 99%; 15 keV 55%)
Counting rate per pixel > 2 x 106 X-ray/s
Data Formats CBF (mosflm, xds); TIF (fit2d, AreaDiffractionMachine)

MarResearch MarCCD 165 (offline, on 2theta Goniometer arm)

Type Single CCD, single fiber-optic sensor
Sensor CCD 61mm x 61mm; 4096 x 4096 15μm pixels (-70°C)
Fiber-optic Taper Demagnification Ratio 2.7:1
Pixel Size (image) 79.1685 μm (2048 x 2048, 2x2 binning)
Point-spread function 100 μm FWHM (Phosphor 40μm thick)
Active Imaging Surface Round, 165mm diameter (21,000mm²)
Distance from sample 60 - 565 mm, mounted on the 2theta arm of the huber goniometer
Readout Electronics 4-channel readout; 16-bit ADCs
Readout Time 2.5 s (x2 binning)
Readout Noise
13e⁻/pixel @ 2.5 sec readout
Dark Current <0.01e⁻/pixel/sec @ 2048 x 2048 pixels
DQE Up to 0.8 for 8KeV to 12keV radiation
Sensitivity (Gain) 6e⁻/12keV photon
Full Well Capacity 400,000e-/pixel = 51,000 12keV photons/pixel @ 2048 x 2048 pixels
Data Format mccd (mosflm, xds, fit2d, AreaDiffractionMachine)

Amptek X-123 SSD

Type Fluorescence
Sensor Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) for X-Ray detection (500 µm)
Detector size 25 mm2
Electronic Noise (typical) 73 eV FWHM (8.7 e- rms)
FWHM 55Fe 5.9 keV peak 125-140 eV

Other Experimental Setup

On-Axis Camera Sample visualization: 1x for 1 x 1.5 mm2; 2x, 3x, 4x and polarization available.
Al Attenuators 150, 250, 800, 2500  μm and combinations 
Precision slits ADC9001; 2 μm precision independent blades; from 0 to 12 mm aperture
Xcell Xe pressure cell

Software for Crystallography

Software Version
ccp4 7.0.65
XtalView 4.1
expo 1.14.10
fit2d 18.002
hkl2map 0.4b
ilmilione 2.2.0
MIFit 2010.10
o 13
shelxle 1.0.664
shelx 2006_3-1
xds 20190315
fityk 1.2.1
Ultima modifica il Giovedì, 24 Settembre 2020 16:18