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All information on safety at Elettra can be found on the intranet, under "activities", prevention and safety. We encourage users and internal staff to consult the Prevention and Safety section of Elettra - Sincrotrone Trieste website, where you will find a comprehensive collection of procedures and safety instructions. You will also find instructions on how to manage an emergency, first aid numbers, as well as a dedicated page on COVID-19.


Safety forms to be read and signed by BACH users before the access

1) CNR-IOM Safety Page: https://www.iom.cnr.it/safety-covid-19.
Please read the Entry Procedures for Reopening the Structures of the CNR-IOM Headquarters in Trieste
Please download, read carefully and sign the 'Declaration for access (external personnel only)' and send it to covid19@iom.cnr.it  (cc: BACH Local Contact) before your arrival specifying in the email the period of your access.

2) Elettra Safety Page: https://www.elettra.trieste.it/activities/spp/2020-03-18-15-03-05.html
Please download, read, print and sign the 'COVID self-declaration form for new employees, guests, collaborators, suppliers and users'. Bring this document with you at your arrival at Elettra. This form should be shown at the Elettra entrance gate.

3) BACH: Please print and sign the present Safety page and send it to the BACH Local Contact before your arrival.

Special on COVID-19

- We ask you not to enter if you have or feel flu syntoms (fever, chills cougth, sore throat, stuffy nose, muscle aches...) or you have been in contact with people displaying flu syntoms in the last 15 days.
- In presence of health conditions that make them susceptible to particular and more serious consequences in case of contagion, we advise to perform the experiment via sample mailing (remote operation).
- Promptly notify the beamline scientists (who will notify the persons in charge) of the onset in the workplace flu-like symptoms taking care to remain at an adequate distance from people possibly present.

In accordance with general rules for the COVID-19 containment, all workers operating at the beamline must observe to the following rules:

  1. Maintain a safe distance of at least 1m and minimize contact with other persons.
  2. Coordinate work in order to reduce contact times. Split the work into shifts or into separate days whenever possible.
  3. Always carry a surgical-type mask with you and wear it covering mouth and nose whenever a distance of at least 1 m cannot be maintained.
  4. maximum number of two persons (including, when authorized, external users) may work at each beamline experimental station and in ventilated rooms (experimental hutches, laboratories) without masks as long as a distance of at least 1m can be maintained. Whenever more than two people are needed to perform an experiment, a preliminary authorization should be obtained from the group coordinators.
  5. Masks must not be shared. Used surgical-type masks must be discarded in the dedicated bins. Information on bin locations can be found here.

  6. As you enter wash hands with soap following the established rules (at least 20 s). Wash hands regularly with soap or hand sanitizer dispensers, which can be found on site. Avoid touching eyes, mouth and nose with your hands. Avoid shaking hands and hugs.
  7.  Hands have to be cleaned each time before using shared equipment. The equipment shared by multiple persons (e.g. handles, phone, all keyboards of instruments and PCs, mouses, monitors, tables, pens,....) has to be cleaned with disinfectants before and after each use. All tools (screwdrivers, pliers, scissors,...) have to be cleaned with ethanol in the ultrasound machine.
The beamline personnel is responsible for keeping the work station clean and tidy. The end-station has been equipped with a bottle of Meliseptol disinfectant. A disinfectant (0.1% Sodium hypochlorite solution) will be soon provided by SPP. These products must be used to clean and disinfect the control table, keyboard, mouse, trackball and all other equipment that are frequently used in experiments. Cleaning has to be done before starting a shift as well as when concluding it. It is advised to cover the keyboard with domopak to protect it by contaminations.

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Work places

A maximum presence of two people is allowed. There are three separate work stations marked with tape (hutch, branch C, monochromator). Only 1 person can work in the space delimited by the yellow and black tape on the floor. See the photos. Only 1 person is allowed inside the acquisition hutch. Do not enter inside the hutch if a person is already inside.The door of the hutch has to remain open and the airconditioner always OFF. 
Only one person can work inside the LASER HUTCH. Even when working alone, surgical-type masks must be always weared inside the laser hutch.

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Safety and General Rules at the BACH beamline

Before starting any experimental activity at the BACH beamline, there are two types of training required:
1. General safety training required by Elettra in order to access the Experimental Hall (Emergency plan, Radiological risk, Radiation Protection Activity, Elettra Safety Training, COVID-19 rules)
2. Beamline Specific Orientation (by reading this document carefully before starting your experiments and reading the BACH manual online: http://www.elettra.trieste.it/lightsources/elettra/elettra-beamlines/bach/bach-manual.html)
In case of emergency (water flooding/fire...) call the BACH beamline scientists (numbers posted on the wall inside the data acquisition hutch) and the Control Room: 8922/8923. 

Each person is responsible for his or her own safety. Research will be conducted in a safe and responsible manner. 
Your first priority should be to secure your own safety. Before starting your experiments, please note the locations of emergency exits, fire extinguishers and fire alarms. 
Always follow the three-point rule to avoid falls and electric and Chemical/Gas safety rules.
Working alone is strongly NOT recommended! In particular, lone working on the platforms and around the BACH endstations must be avoided. Any activity at endstations and beamline (outside the data acquisition hutch) should not be carried out unless a second person is standing by or the user has been authorized by BACH staff to carry out special procedures. Any risky situation must be avoided. 
Please also remember that many experimentalists are working together in the experimental halls in a common space: always consider the safety of the others!
Situations of potential danger should be reported right away to the BACH beamline scientists. Communicate any accident or irregularities to the beamline staff immediately. Malfunction or damage of the equipment should be reported right away to the BACH beamline scientists.
No food is allowed at the BACH beamline. Do not eat at the BACH beamline are (endstations and BACH hutches).  In the Building T ground floor there is a kitchen for storage of food and drinks and for having your meal. Inside the Experimental Hall there are water distributors for drinking.
Never bring with you the key of the door of the data acquisition hutch.
If you need to leave the beamline unattended, make sure that the water cooling of the evaporators has been switched off, the superconducting magnetic field is zero.
The users must keep careful notes of all research engagements on the official BACH logbook. The BACH beamline logbook MUST be used to record all BACH beamline activity and to report all equipment/software/controls malfunction or damage (besides sending right away an email to the BACH beamline scientists).
Users practice safe and responsible computing. Please do not use internet on control computer. Never install software on any BACH computer.

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Users are responsible for:

Understanding and following safety protocols and adhering to all applicable signage.
Always wearing long pants and close-toe shoes, slip-resistance soled shoes, flat shoes. In particular it is forbidden to wear smooth-surfaced soles (such as leather), high-heeled shoes, flip-flop or open-toe shoes when accessing or working inside BACH beamline area. 
Wearing personal protective equipment when working with potentially hazardous substances. In particular, have close-toed shoes, long pants and sleeves and face/eye protection (no uncovered skin) when handling liquid nitrogen or wear a hard hat and safety shoes whenever carrying/lifting heavy items, appropriate laser-protection glasses when laser is in operation. 
Posting proper safety protocols and signs required for experiments. 
Contacting BACH staff and the Control Room in case of a problem.
Backing up data and completing on-site data processing before run has ended.
Cleaning up the beamline and lab areas before run has ended.
Reporting immediately missing or broken equipment.
Disposing of food-related garbage in the appropriate garbage bin.
Disposing of contaminated gloves or tissues in the appropriate garbage bin.

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Users are not allowed to:

Making repairs without authorization
Aligning beamline optics (except PreVert pitch) without authorization
Operating cranes
Removing covers, interlocks or unplugging detectors or other electrical equipment
Using computer terminals not assigned to users.
Leaving end stations unattended during potentially dangerous operations (water cooling running, gas dosing, superconduction magnetic coil energized, laser on…)
Refilling liquid helium canisters
Handling cryogenic dewars without protection close-toed shoes, long gloves, long pants and sleeves and face/eye protection (no uncovered skin!)
Handling cryogenic dewars without  authorization and appropriate training
Handling any high voltage cable
Handling toxic/inflammable/high pressure gas bottles
Bringing any chemical or hazardous sample or instrument at the beamline without any written authorization of BACH scientists and spp@elettra.eu.
Accessing the closed areas around the endstation when superconduction magnet or laser is on.
Baking out the BACH endstations unless authorized by BACH scientists.
Access the high platform around the cryomagnet endstation.

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Risk of stumbling or falling from stairs, platforms: Three Point Rule

The biggest cause of falls is human error and failure to follow the Three-Point Rule. 
The Three-Point Rule requires three of four points of contact to be maintained at all times – two hands and one foot, or both feet and one hand. 
This system allows maximum stability and support, reducing the likelihood of slipping and falling.
In particular at the BACH beamline special attention should be paid when accessing the platforms or using the stairs.
Face the stepladder when climbing up or down. In particular remember that to climb down the step ladders (i.e. the stairs connected to the platforms around the endstations), for safety reasons, users should go backwards. Maintain a firm grip using both hands. Users must not access the platform and the ladders used to manipulate the sample at the endstation A alone. When necessary to manipulate the sample, the user must remain on the paltform as short as possible, wear appropriate closed non-slipping shoes, follow the three-point rule  and a second persons must be present and standing by at his side. Unsuitable footwear are often a factor in slip-falls. We remind that shoes with smooth-surfaced soles (such as leather) can lead to slips, falls and injuries.
In any case, as already remarked, it is strongly not reccomended for external users to work at the BACH beamline and endstations alone.  
Pay attention to hurdles on the floor: free cables spare parts!!
Pay attention when using any stairs (remember the Three-Point Rule!)
Pay attention to protuding objects (e.g. parts of the instrumentation). In particular pay attention to protuding object which are at head level.

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Safety Guide for using High-Pressure Gas Cylinders

When you need to use gas cylinders of He, please ask the beamline staff. When authorized, use the proper carriage to transport high-pressure cylinders.
When gas cylinders are in use, they should be attached to the proper stands. The carriages are designed for transport only. Cylinder caps should be left on each cylinder until it has been secured against a wall or bench or placed in a cylinder stand, and is ready for installation of the regulator. Cylinder caps protect the valve on top of the cylinder from damage if knocked. 

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Other Experimental Hazards 

Avoid contact with electrical heat tape during bake out (can cause burns)
Avoid contact with Ion Gauges (can cause burns to the skin)
Place blades, tips, needles in a container with appropriate label (chem cabinet outside the PC hutch)

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Electrical Safety

The most serious accidents caused by electricity are electric shocks and fires caused by overheating. The followings are safety measures to avoid electrical accidents. Do not use excessive branching and wound cord reels. They might cause overheating, and damage to or burning of cables.
Don't touch any energized equipment or high voltage cable.
Pay attention that water or other liquids cannot reach any electric equipment or electric parts.

Before using any electrical cable or plug and power supply, follow the instructions of the beamline scientists.

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Cryogenic liquids and dewars

Unless explicitly  authorized, users are not allowed to handle cryogenic liquids and dewars. They have always to ask beamline staff and be trained. 
For the refill of liquid nitrogen dewars, follow the procedures described by the beamline staff and described in the refilling instructions posted in the Elettra LN2 refill area.
Before using be familiar with the various valves on the dewar, and which valves should be left open/closed at what time, as incorrect handling potentially can cause a severe hazard.  As an absolute rule always wear thick gloves and safety glasses and closed shoes, long pants and long sleeves (no uncovered skin) when working with the cryogenic dewars. For all valves in the cryogenic dewars, we remind that the valve is open when the handle is parallel to the related tubes, and closed when perpendicular to the related tubes.

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Laser can be occasionally used at this beamline. Everyone who uses a laser should be aware of the risks.
Laser Safety rules have to be strictly followed. ONLY WELL-TRAINED AND AUTHORIZED USERS can operate lasers.
Adequate eye protection are required for everyone in the Laser Hutch and in proximity of the BACH experimental chamber when the laser is operative.
Users who enter in the Laser Hutch should never put their eyes at the level of the horizontal plane where the beams are.
Watches, jewelry, badges that might enter the optical plane, are not allowed in the Laser hutch in order to prevent beam specular reflections.
Alignment of beams and optical components must be performed at a reduced beam power whenever possible.
Beam block and enclosures have to be used during the alignement procedures.
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mical Hazards

Chemicals and Nanoparticles 

Consider all chemical reagents hazardous and consult the Chemical Products Information Sheet (MSDS); Before manipulating a chemical reagent carefully read the instructions and information shown on the product label; Take to the experimental stations (beamlines) only what is necessary for the carrying out of experiments and strictly according to the descriptions shown in the Samples Safety Sheet associated to the proposal;
The Safety Data Sheets of the Chemicals available for the BACH beamline users can be found here: Download Safety Data Sheets. The paper version of these Data Sheets can be found inside the BACH hutch (blu ring binder). 
We do not accept pyrophoric (e.g. silane, borane, and phosphine etc.) or highly unstable gases (i.e., 1,3-butadiene, methyl acetylene, vinyl chloride, tetrafluoroethylene, and vinyl fluoride, etc.) gases. Furthermore, any corrosive, inflammable, highly toxic or dangerous gas or gas mixture (including H2S, NO, NO2, ..) is not accepted at this beamline. Only gases available in lecture bottles/minican can be used (upon request).

Be aware of the hazardous properties of dry Nanoparticles (https://www.purdue.edu/ehps/rem/home/booklets/nanopolicy.pdf). Nanoparticles are able to pass through cell membranes in organisms and may interact with biological systems. The manipulation on the beamline and related laboratory of nanoparticles (<2.5 micron) in powder form is strictly forbidden. Measurements on nanosized materials can be authorized only when the sample is firmly bonded to/inside a substrate or in a sealed confinement. In any case hazardous materials producing toxic or contaminant matter suspensions on air are stricly forbidden.

Handle nanoparticles in suspension  in a fume hood, externally ducted biological safety cabinet, or glove box. Regularly laundered lab coats must be worn. Arm sleeves are required where high levels of exposure or splashes of solutions containing nano particles are anticipated. Gloves (disposable nitrile) must be worn when handling nano materials. Clothing should include long pants and closed toed shoes. Nanoparticle solutions need to be handled over disposable bench covers. All solutions and solid materials must be disposed of as hazardous waste. 

Manipulate samples and toxic solvents and/or volatile (INCLUDING ACETHONE AND ETHANOLE) only in the Fume Hoods/exhauster cabins (available on request at user support Lab), NEVER at the BACH beamline. If it is necessary to take solvents to the beamlines, they should be placed in a small sealed bottle with appropriate labels;
Perform hazardous reactions only in the exhauster cabins, on small scales and only if authorized by the Elettra safety group and head of user Chemistry support Lab;
Locate the fire extinguishers and in case of doubts ask for the advice of the securities section;
Manipulate all chemical reagents with nitrile gloves;
Do not answer the telephone or touch door handles, equipment, face and hair with contaminated gloves. Do not transit from one place to another wearing contaminated gloves.
Before preparing solutions and samples verify the chemical compatibility between the reagents;
Label the residues and any sample and/or prepared solution (description of contents, the responsible name and the beamline).
Please refer to this webpage for more detailed safety rules : http://www.elettra.trieste.it/lightsources/elettra/elettra-beamlines/bach/csl.html

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Beamline User/Collaborator/Student
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Safety protocols- ONLY FOR BACH staff


The dewar has a total of five ports:
1. Pressure gauge, which is preceded by a small pressure relief valve.
2. Fine pressure relief valve with a manual valve on it. This valve can be briefly closed during cooldown to facilitate He transfer, but at all other times should be open as it is the initial safety valve in that it has the lowest pressure requirement to open. 
3. Coarse pressure relief valve. This valve will open if the pressure becomes very high, and after the fine pressure relief has already opened.
4. Fill valve for the dewar- SHOULD ALWAYS BE CLOSED. If this valve is left open, air will pull into the dewar and cause an ice plug which could be very dangerous. However, if during installation of the cryostat there is significant overpressure, as judged by the release of He through the fine and/or coarse pressure relief valves the fill valve can temporarily be opened to release overpressure.
5. Fill valve for the dewar- SHOULD ALWAYS BE CLOSED. If this valve is left open, air will pull into the dewar and cause an ice plug which could be very dangerous. However, if during installation of the cryostat there is significant overpressure, as judged by the release of He through the fine and/or coarse pressure relief valves the fill valve can temporarily be opened to release overpressure.
6. Top port through which the transfer line vessel leg is inserted. It should ALWAYS BE CLOSED when the dewar is not in use as otherwise an ice plug can be formed.
Before the installation of the cryostat is started, the valve for the top port should be opened to release any overpressure of the dewar. As cold gas will be expelled through this port immediately upon opening the valve, make sure that hands and face are protected.


(information taken from: http://www-ssrl.slac.stanford.edu/smbxas/instrumentation/cryoman.html#frost).

Using Compressed Gas

Use only wrenches or tools provided by the cylinder supplier to remove a cylinder cap or to open a valve. Never use a screwdriver or pliers. Keep the cylinder valve closed except when in use. Attach the closed regulator to the cylinder. Never open the cylinder valve unless the regulator is completely closed. Regulators are specific to the gas involved. A regulator should be attached to a cylinder without forcing the threads. Ensure the threads of both the regulator and main valve are clean. If the inlet of a regulator does not fit the cylinder outlet, no effort should be made to try to force the fitting. A poor fit may indicate that the regulator is not intended for use on the gas chosen. Turn the delivery pressure adjusting screw counter-clockwise until it turns freely. This prevents unintended gas flow into the regulator. Open the cylinder slowly until the inlet gauge on the regulator registers the cylinder pressure. If the cylinder pressure reading is lower than expected, the cylinder valve may be leaking. With the flow control valve at the regulator outlet closed, turn the delivery pressure adjusting screw clockwise until the required delivery pressure is reached. Check for leaks using Snoop or soap solution. At or below freezing temperatures, use a glycerin and water solution, such as Snoop, rather than soap. Never use an open flame to detect leaks. When finished with the gas, close the cylinder valve, release the regulator pressure and replace the gas cap if it will not be used in the near future.


Procedure to access the FE hutch and radiation emergency 

pdf "The personal safety of BACH beamline".


Magnetic fields and cryomagnet endstation Hazard and Safety


First we remind that it is forbidden for the users to access the high platform around the cryomagnet and that it is forbidden to leave the beamline unattended when the magnetic field is on.

Special care has to be observed when operating with the superconducting coil since high magnetic field is generated in the area around the cryomagnet.
The area where the magnetic field can be potentially dangerous is delimited and closed by gates and it is a RESTRICTED ACCESS ZONE. In particular it is forbidden to enter in this area when a magnetic field has been applied (even if the current of the coil is zero).  
The magnetic field can be dangerous. The field measured outside the cryomagnet is 145 milliTesla when the SC coil is operating at 6 T, which is a quite high value. 
Before operating with the magnet please read the following safety and precautions rules:
BEFORE RAMPING UP THE SC COIL: REMOVE all metallic objects which could be attracted by the magnetic field (screwdrivers, screws, bolts, nuts, ....), credit cards, self phones, watches, from the magnetic field area (restricted zone delimited by the gates)!!

Exposure should be always avoided for pregnant women, people with  cardiac pacemaker, neurostimulators, cochlear implant, derivation valves, lenses, intra-corporeal metallic foreign objects

In this table we report the magnetic field measured along the field at 314 mm from the center of the coil (maximum field in the restricted area external to the cryomagnet): 

coil (T) coil (A) external field (G,mT)
0 0 3.4G-0.34mT
-0.1 -1.439 22.4G-2.24mT
-0.2 -2.878 43.3G-4.33mT
-0.5 -7.195 106G-10.6mT
-0.75 -10.79 161G-
-1 -14.39 215G
-2 -28.78 435G-43.5mT
-3 -43.175 665G-0.665mT
-4 -57.56 904G-0.904mT
-5 -71.96 1147G-114.7mT
-6 -86.35 1389G-138.9mT

▪ Projectile effect (attraction by a static magnetic field and acceleration, with speeds of up to several meters per second): ferromagnetic material (if in doubt about the ferromagnetic nature of a metal object, a test can be carried out using a small magnet). REMOVE all metallic objects which could be attracted by the magnetic field (screwdrivers, screws, bolts, nuts, ....) from the magnetic field area!! Always be aware that even a small object can become a projectile and cause fatal injuries.Due to the presence of a strong magnetic field, certain materials may present a functional or even a vital risk:

▪ Displacement of intra-corporeal metallic foreign objects: Intraocular metallic foreign body (metal worker, history of ballistic orbit trauma, old intra-cranial aneurysm clips)

▪ Perturbed functioning of certain devices: cardiac pacemaker, neurostimulators, cochlear implant, derivation valves, lenses

▪ Credit cards, mobile self phones, watches, tape recorders and cameras, magnetic cards can be permanently damaged and information contained could be corrupted and should stay outside the magnetic field area)

• Electrical transformers may become magnetically saturated in fields above 50 gauss. The safety characteristics of equipment may also be affected.
In regard to prostheses, non ferromagnetic materials with no electrical activity (titanium and its alloys, nitinol, tantalum, etc.) carry no particular risks in relation to magnetic field. For low magnetic prostheses (orthopedic material), a delay of 6 to 8 weeks after implantation is advised to avoid displacing the material.
In all cases, it is advisable to check the magnetic field compatibility of the material (see http://www.mrisafety.com/), particularly when operating in high fields.

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Last Updated on Thursday, 22 October 2020 10:04