T-ReX Laboratory

Welcome To The T-ReX Laboratory Group

T-ReX (Time Resolved X-Ray spectroscopy) is the facility for ultrafast table-top time-resolved spectroscopies at the FERMI FEL at Elettra.

Mission of the Laboratory is to develop and offer to users advanced ultrafast photon and electron spectroscopies. Both stand-alone projects or complementary-preparatory experiments for FERMI are possible. The in-house research is devoted to the study of ultrafast or non-equililbrium processes in condensed and soft matter and their applications in technology through the use of femtosecond laser pulses. Our goal is to study transient states and photo-induced phase transitions in superconductors, magnetic materials, and electron correlations in hard- and soft- condensed matter (charge transfer and phonon assisted excitations).
The Laboratory is conceived around a set of sources and set-ups that offer a number of spectroscopic techniques.

Research Highlights | Publications | Thesis Works 

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Published: Ultrafast dynamics in (TaSe4)2I triggered by valence and core-level excitation

We make use of both optical laser and free-electron laser (FEL) based time-resolved spectroscopies in order to study the effect of a selective excitation on the normal-state and on the CDW phases by probing the near-infrared/visible optical properties both along and perpendicularly to the direction of the CDW, where the system is metallic and insulating, respectively.
  W. Bronsch et al., Faraday Discussions, Advanced Article (2022)

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Published: Photoinduced long-lived state in FeSe0.4Te0.6

We exploit tr-ARPES to study ultrafast electron dynamics in FeSe0.4Te0.6 following photoexcitation by near-infrared pump pulses. By exploiting probe-polarization-dependent matrix element effects, we reveal a photoinduced long-lived state, lasting for a few tens of picoseconds, showing features compatible with a nematic state.

L. Fanfarillo et al., Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena 250, 147090 (2021).


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Published: Ultrafast broadband optical spectroscopy for quantifying subpicometric coherent atomic displacements in WTe2

Here we show how time-resolved broadband optical spectroscopy can be used to quantify, with femtometer resolution, the oscillation amplitudes of coherent phonons through a displacive model without free tuning parameters, except an overall scaling factor determined by comparison between experimental data and DFT calculations.
D. Soranzio et al., Physical Review Research 1, 032033(R) (2019).

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Revealing cuprates high energy electronic excitations

In strongly correlated systems the electronic properties at the Fermi energy are intertwined with those at high-energy scales. One of the pivotal challenges in the field of high-temperature superconductivity is to understand how the high-energy scale physics is correlated to Mott-like excitations. By using a novel time-resolved optical spectrosocpy we faced the problem and give clear answers in this very hot topic.

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Effective Fermi-Dirac distribution of the Dirac particles in Bi2Se3

By time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy we determined the evolution of the out-of-equilibrium electronic structure of the topological insulator Bi2Se3.
We found that the energy dependence of the nonequilibrium charge population is solely determined by the analytical form of the effective Fermi-Dirac distribution.

Figure Caption:
ARPES band dispersion of Bi2Se3 acquired with the 4th harmonic of our laser system, at 6.3 eV. In the figure the topological surface state (SS) and conduction band (CB) are clearly visible. The chemical potential energy is marked with μ and a green line.
The graph shows the snapshot for one particular delay time of the the pump-probe tr-ARPES. The signal is obtained as the difference between the ARPES image at +600 fs and an ARPES image at a negative delay. Red (blue) represents an increase (decrease) of the spectral weight.

The response of the Fermi-Dirac distribution to ultrashort IR laser pulses has been studied by modeling the dynamics of hot electrons after optical excitation. We disentangled a large increase in the effective temperature (T*) from a shift of the chemical potential (μ*), which is consequence of the ultrafast photodoping of the conduction band. We demonstrated that the relaxation dynamics of T* and μ* are k independent and these two quantities uniquely define the evolution of the excited charge population. 

Physical Review B 86, 205133 (2012)

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Ultrafast optical control of the ZrTe5 electronic properties

Ultrafast optoelectronics consists in the capability to manipulate electronic transport properties via light at the sub picosecond (10-12 s) time scale. In this letter, we have addressed the origin of the resistivity anomaly in ZrTe5 and we have proven the possibility to manipulate its electronic properties at the ultra-short time scale via optical excitation with laser light.

Nowadays, optical switches are realized in oxides by exploiting phase transitions between metallic and insulating states. However, to meet the full integration with the current technology, optical control of semiconductors electronic properties is of pivotal importance.
In this respect, ZrTe5 represents an ideal system, which is fascinating the condensed matter community with its amazing set of transport properties. A resistivity peak is accompanied by the switch of the charge carriers, from holes to electrons. Magneto-resistivity is observed with both positive and negative sign, as a result of either the presence of three-dimensional Dirac particles or spin polarized two-dimensional Dirac particles.
Angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and Time resolved ARPES measurements have been carried out at the T-Rex laboratory giving a thorough insight in the origin of the unique behaviour of ZrTe5 band structure at the Fermi level.

  We report an energy shift of the band structure across the Fermi level by varying the temperatures.
We prove the capability to control it at the ultrafast scale by changing the material (electronic and lattice) temperature with a pulsed laser pulse. Therefore, by optically controlling the band structure binding energy and the charge carriers' lifetime, we unlock the route for a unique platform for magneto, optical and thermoelectric transport applications.

This research was conducted by the following research team:

Giulia Manzoni, Università degli studi di Trieste, Trieste, Italy
Andrea Sterzi, Università degli studi di Trieste, Trieste, Italy
Alberto Crepaldi, Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., Trieste, Italy
Michele Diego, Università degli studi di Trieste, Trieste, Italy
Federico Cilento, Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., Trieste, Italy
Michele Zacchigna, CNR-IOM Trieste, Trieste, Italy
Philippe Bougnon, EPFL Lausanne, Switzerland
Helmuth Berger, EPFL Lausanne, Switzerland
Arnaud Magrez, EPFL Lausanne, Switzerland
Marco Grioni, EPFL Lausanne, Switzerland
Fulvio Parmigiani, Università degli studi di Trieste, Trieste, Italy; Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., Trieste, Italy; International faculty, University of Köln, Germany.

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The T-ReX Laboratory is open to users since 2017.
A novel high rep. rate HHG source has been developed in collaboration with CNR-IOM and is now operational.
The first results from the HHG source can be found here. HHG probe will be offered to users since 2020.


Jan: Pharos Laser is installed and operating
Jan: RegA Laser and all sources will be installed
February: The dedicated optical setups will be completed
March: First Test Experiments in the new Setup

April: Setup for 4th Harmonic Generation is operational

2018 Publications

A. Sterzi, G. Manzoni, A. Crepaldi, F. Cilento, M. Zacchigna, M. Leclerc, Ph. Bugnon, A. Magrez, H. Berger, L. Petaccia, and F. Parmigiani 
Probing band parity inversion in the topological insulator GeBi2Te4 by linear dichroism in ARPES
J. Electr. Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 225, 23 (2018)

F. Cilento, G. Manzoni, A. Sterzi, S. Peli, A. Ronchi, A. Crepaldi, F. Boschini, C. Cacho, R. Chapman, E. Springate, H. Eisaki, M. Greven, M. Berciu, A. F. Kemper, A. Damascelli, M. Capone, C. Giannetti, and F. Parmigiani
Dynamics of correlation-frozen antinodal quasiparticles in superconducting cuprates
Science Advances 4, eaar1998 (2018)

A. Ronchi, P. Franceschini, L. Fanfarillo, P. Homm, M. Menghini, S. Peli, G. Ferrini, F. Banfi, F. Cilento, A. Damascelli, F. Parmigiani, J.-P. Locquet, M. Fabrizio, M. Capone, and C. Giannetti
Ultrafast orbital manipulation and Mott physics in multi-band correlated materials
Proc. SPIE 10530, Ultrafast Phenomena and Nanophotonics XXII, 105300V (2018)


Prof. Fulvio Parmigiani has been awarded with the Zernike Chair 2012. The Zernike Chair is a temporary honorary professorship awarded to a world-class scientist.
Alberto Simoncig has been Awarded with the "Premio Emilio Zavattini 2009--2010" (Best Ph.D. Thesis)
Giacomo Coslovich has been Awarded with the "Premio Emilio Zavattini 2010--2011" (Best Ph.D. Thesis)
Giulio Vampa has been awarded with the "Best Graduate Poster" prize at the"Cross Border Workshop in Laser Science 2011"

Last Updated on Wednesday, 29 June 2022 17:46