PID Temperature Controller


The temperature controller box is designed to remotely control Elind () or Sorensen (Model DCS-100-12E) power supplies at BACH beamline, which are used for heaters in the experimental chambers of the Endstation A.
Connections between the controller and other appliances are schematically depicted in Scheme 1.
Scheme 1. Block diagram of PID controlled heating system at Endstation A of the BACH beamline.

Front panel controls

PID controller - Front panel

Table 1. Front Panel Controls
Control Description
1 Eurotherm 2408 PID controller with one analog output 0-10  Vdc.
a Auto/Man button
b Run/Hold button
c Page button
d Scroll button
e Down button
f Up button
g Upper readout showing measured temperature (Sbr = Sensor break).
h Lower readout (output level in Manual mode; temperature setpoint in Auto mode).
2 Rocker switch to select the remote control of Elind or Sorensen power supply.
3 Rotary switch to select the remote control of Elind voltage or current output.
4 A 10-turn potentiometer to set Elind output limit. When the switch 3 is in voltage position, the potentiometer sets the current output limit (1 turn = 3.6 A). When the switch 3 is in the current position, the potentiometer set the voltage output limit (1 turn = 7.5V).
5 Switch to select the manual or remote control of the Sorensen voltage or current output.
6,7 Rocker switches to switch on/off some of the programmable functions of the Eurotherm PID controller. As of 2016, switch 6 can switch on the full level of manual operation; switch 7 is idle.

Rear panel

PID controller - Rear panel

Table 2. PID rear-panel description
Control or Terminal Description
8 Mains input with On/Off rocker switch.
9 Inputs for temperature sensors. Use only one type of input.
10 Connector for Sorensen power supply.
11 Connector for the Elind power supply.
12 Connector for a programmable logical input of the PID controller.
13 Computer serial port.

Connections to Elind, Sorensen, and PC

PID controller cabling

Wire connections from PID to Elind rear side

PID to Sorensen rear side connector. When PID is disconnected, place the blank J3 connector.


Warning! Do not connect the thermocouple input during e-beam annealing with applied high voltage.

After the switch-on procedure, the controller can be operated manually from the PID module by buttons 1a-e, or remotely from PC (see Software section).

Connecting thermocouple input

The positive (+) pole of the used N-type thermocouple (pink wire) must be connected to the shorter pin and the negative (-) (white wire) to the longer pin of the thermocouple feedthrough on the manipulator.

Switch-on remote control of Elind power supply

  1. Select “Man” mode pressing Auto/Man button (1a) and zero output (Down button).
  2. Set switch 2 into Elind position.
  3. Select between remote control of current and voltage (switch 3, typically voltage).
  4. Set manual output limit on potentiometer 4.
  5. Turn both Elind potentiometers for current and voltage output fully country-clockwise to zero the output.
  6. Switch the Remote/Local button of the Elind to Remote position.

Switch-off remote control of Elind power supply

  1. Select “Man” mode pressing Auto/Man button (1a).
  2. Zero output using Down button (1e).
  3. Make sure both Elind potentiometers are rotated fully country-clockwise (Zero output).
  4. Switch the Remote/Local button of the Elind to Local position.

Switch-on remote control of Sorensen power supply

  1. Select “Man” mode pressing Auto/Man button (1a) and zero output (Down button).
  2. Turn both output current and voltage controls fully country-clockwise (zero output).
  3. Set switch 2 into Sorensen position.
  4. Select between remote control of voltage and current (switch 5).
  5. Set manually maximum current (voltage) output limit for the remotely controlled voltage (current) rotating the 10-turn potentiometers of the Sorensen. (1 Turn of the current control corresponds ca. to 1.2A; 1 Turn of the voltage control ca. 10V).

Basic PID operation

Some basic operations of the Eurotherm 2408 PID controller are following. For more details, see Chapter 2 of the Installation and Operation Handbook (Eurotherm 2408)
Note: One can get back to Home display at any time by pressing Page and Scroll buttons together. Alternatively, you will always be returned to this display if no button is pressed for 45 seconds, or whenever the power is turned off and on.

Note: A single press of Scroll button (1d) will flash the display units for 0.5 seconds, after which you will be returned to the Home display.

Manual and Automatic mode

The PID controller has two basic modes of operation:
  • Automatic modein which the output is automatically adjusted to maintain the temperature or process value at the setpoint.
  • Manual modein which you can adjust the output (voltage typically) independently of the setpoint. You can toggle between the modes by pressing the AUTO/MAN button.

Manual mode

If the AUTO light is on, press the AUTO/MAN button to select manual mode. The MAN light comes on. The upper readout shows the measured temperature, or process value. The lower readout shows roughly the output value. To adjust the output, press Up or Down button.
(Note: If Output Rate Limit has been enabled, then the lower readout will show the working output. If Up or Down button is pressed, it will change to show and allow adjustment of the target output.)

Automatic mode

If the MAN light is on, press the AUTO/MAN button to select automatic mode. The AUTO light comes on. The upper readout shows the measured temperature. The lower readout shows the setpoint. To adjust the setpoint up or down, press or Up or Down button.
(Note: If Setpoint Rate Limit has been enabled, then the lower readout will show the active setpoint. If Up or Down button is pressed, it will change to show and allow adjustment of the target setpoint.)

Parameters and how to access them

Parameters are settings within the controller that determine how the controller will operate. For ease of access, the parameters are arranged in lists as shown in the following navigation diagram

The lists are:
Home list
Run list
Programming list
Alarm list
Autotune list
PID list
Setpoint list
Input list
Output list
Communications list
Information list
Access list.
To step through the list headers, press Page button.
Keep pressing Page button to step through the list headers, eventually returning you to the Home display.
Note: Some of the lists (grey color in the diagram below) can be accessed only full manual mode. This mode can be enabled with the switch 6, labelled PID full (up position).
To step through the parameterswithin a particular list, press Scroll button.
When you reach the end of the list, you will return to the list header. From within a list you can return to the current list header at any time can by pressing Page button. To step to the next list header, press Page button once again.
To change the value of a parameterpress either Up or Down button. During adjustment, single presses change the value by one digit. Keeping the button pressed speeds up the rate of change. Two seconds after releasing either button, the display blinks to show that the controller has accepted the new value.

Eurotherm PID Navigation diagram

Example 1: How to Set, Enable, or Disable Setpoint Rate Limit.
First, enagle full level of manual operation with rocker switch 6 (PID full, up position). Access Setpoint list of parameters by pressing Page button. (SP List will appear on the display). Pressing Scroll button reach SPrr parameter (Setpoint ramp rate limit). Set value >0 or 0 to enable or disable the rate limit. The rate is in K/s units. For example, 0.2 correspond to 1K/5s or 12K/min (Ramp rate for Temperature-programmed XPS is typically 3-12K/min (0.05-0.2K/s).
Example 2How to Enable/Disable Output Rate Limit.
Access Output list of parameters by pressing Page button. (OP List will appear on the display). Pressing Scroll button reach OPrr parameter (Output ramp rate limit). Set value >0 or 0 to enable or disable the rate limit. The rate is in %/s units (that is roughly V/s in case of Elind Voltage control configuration).

Configuration level

To set up more parameters and characteristics of the PID controller (e.g. type of thermocouple or temperature units), one has to enter the Configuration level.
Access to Full, Edit or Configuration levels is protected by a password to prevent unauthorised access.
  1. Press Page button until you reach the access list (ACCS).
  2. Press Scroll button, ‘codE’ display will appear.
  3. Press Up button to set password ‘1’, lower readout will change to ‘PASS’ after two seconds. Access to higher level is now unlocked.
  4. Press Scroll button to proceed to the ‘Goto’ list.
  5. Use Up or Down button to select ‘conF’ level and press Scroll button.
  6. Enter password ‘2’ repeating the password entry procedure described above.
  7. Press Scroll button, ‘InSt ConF’ display will appear. The configuration level has been unlocked.
  8. See Chapter 6 of the Installation and Operation Handbook (Eurotherm 2408) for details of the configuration parameters.
To step through the list headers, press the Page button.
To step through the parameters within a particular list press the Scroll button.
Example: How to set the type of input thermocouple
Access Input configuration list of parameters by pressing Page button. (iP ConF will appear on the display). Pressing Scroll button reach inPt parameter and select input type using Up or Down button ( = N thermocouple, = K thermocouple).
To leave the Configuration level press Page button until the ‘Edit’ display appears. Use Up or Down button to select ‘Yes’. After a two-second delay, the display will blank and revert to the Home display in Operator level.

PID tuning

The set of appropriate PID values depends on the used sample heater and cooling configuration. Ask beamline staff to set the last known PID parameters. Check the quality of the temperature control (straight-line control, no overshoot or undershoot). If required, re-tune the PID parameters as follows.
  1. Disable Setpoint ramp limit if it has been enabled.
  2. Set reasonable manual output limiton the Elind or Sorensen potentiometer, as the controller will set maximum allowed power output at the beginning of the tuning procedure.
  3. Access Full operation level (toggle switch 6 in up position).
  4. In the ‘Atun’ list, select ‘drA’ and set it to ‘off’.
  5. In the ‘Atun’ list, select ‘tunE’ and set it to ‘on’.
  6. Press the Page and Scroll buttons together to return to the Home display. The display will flash ‘tunE’ to indicate that tuning is in progress.
  7. Select Auto mode pressing Auto/Man button and set the setpoint to the value at which you will normally operate the process.
  8. After some seconds (maybe >1min), the controller induces an oscillation in the temperature by first turning the heating on, and then off. The first cycle is not complete until the measured value has reached the required setpoint.
  9. After two cycles of oscillation the tuning is completed and the tuner switches itself off.
Calculating and setting the value of the PID parameters in order to obtain a good control is described in detail in Chapter 4 of the Installation and Operation Handbook (Eurotherm 2408).


There are two software applications which can monitor or control the PID controller remotely from PC:
  1. iTools (Eurotherm)
  2. Temperature to SES (Labview VI)
Note: These two applications are in collision when run simultaneously.
The first one, iTools, is typically used  for general remote control procedures (manual annealing, parameter settings,..).
The second one, Temperature to SES, is intended for temperature-programmed XPS, graphical monitoring and temperature recording.

Eurotherm iTools

The PID controller can be monitored, operated, and configured via iTools software of Eurotherm.
  • Device Panel View allows the device to be ‘operated’ via iTools (instead of at the panel) if desired.
  • Parameter Explorer can be used to quickly read and edit parameters.
  • Device Recipe Editor is an effective tool to store and load defined lists of parameters.

Running iTools

Note: Communication with all devices connected to other serial PC ports (Vacuum gauge controllers,…) will be disabled for a few minutes during iTools initialization.

1. Start Eurotherm iTools application

2. Hit the Scan button to start synchronization with the PID controller. It can take a few minutes. Hit the Scan button again as soon as the PID controller is recognized, to stop the scan, which would slow down the computer otherwise.

Click on button to get screen shown above.

Device Recipe Editor

Note: Each of the sample holders and used power supply, as well as used experimental conditions (LN2 cooling,…) require unique set of PID parameters. They can be set manually, found by PID tuning procedure or they can be loaded from previously tuned values stored in so called recipe files.
1. Press the Watch/Recipe button .

2. Select open file button in the Watch/Recipe Editor and choose the following file:

3. The file contains parameters sets for following Power supply-heater-cooling combinations:

Elind PBN no LN2= PBN sample holder heated from Elind PS, no LN2 cooling of the manipulator, Temperature reading from N type Tc attached on the sample holder

Elind PBN Cu LN2 = PBN sample holder with Cu plate on top, heated from Elind PS, manipulator cooled with LN2, Temperature reading from N type Tc attached on the sample holder

Elind Large E-beam LN2 = E-beam sample holder (larger one), filament heated from Elind PS, manipulator cooled by LN2, Temperature reading from N type Tc attached on the sample holder

Elind ColdFinger LN2 = Cold finger heated from Elind PS, manipulator cooled with LN2, Temperature reading from LakeShore Monitor
Important! LakeShore output must be set appropriately: Output 0V for 0K, 10V for 500K!

4. Hit the Access button and wait until it become .

5. Right click on the appropriate set of parameters and select Download Values. This will load the new parameter values to the PID controller.

6. Hit again the Access button and wait until it becomes .

7. Close all. PID controller is ready with new set of parameters.

Temperature to SES (LabView VI)

This Virtual Instrument (VI), programmed in LabView, monitors the PID temperature readings and transmits analog voltage output, proportional to the temperature value, to PBACH7 PC (see Scheme1). SES software on PBACH7, which controls the R3000 Scienta analyzer can read and record this analog signal on analog input labeled “T”.


1. First, make sure that iTools software is closed. Then start the program Temperature to SES. A window similar to the one on the following image should appear.

2. Go to Settings tab (see picture below). Set the frequency of temperature recording by parameter Milliseconds between readings. Number of maximum stored readings is 3600. That is, when 1000 milliseconds is set, maximum time span recorded is 1hour.
The switch “Enable Analog Output” serves to switch on/off transmission of the temperature reading to PBACH7 PC.
If you wish to record all measured temperatures into a file, tick the "Record in file" option and select folder where the file will be saved. Numbering of files with recorded temperature is automatic. Temperature values will be saved as a function of time elapsed from hitting Start button. It is recommanded to note exact time at the beginning.

Monitoring temperature

Hit the Start button.
Note: While monitoring the temperature, the temperature controller can be operated only manually.

Saving recorded temperature from graph

WARNING! This will allow you to save only temperatures dislayed on the screen. Better choice is to select "Record to file" option, before you start the temperature monitoring. However, once the Start button was hit, "Record to file" can't be selected. Then following simple solution can be used:
1.       Right click on the graph, select Export, Export Data To Clipboard.
2.       Ctrl-V (Igor Pro, Notepad, Excel, …)

Ramp-up – Delay – Ramp-Down Programmer

A simple temperature program (linear ramp-up, delay, linear ramp-down) can be started from “Temperature Program” tab.
1.       Stop the temperature recording hitting Stop button.
2.       Run VI, hit the button with arrow.
3.       Check Settings Tab
4.       Go to Temperature program Tab.
5.       Switch on the Enable program button
6.       Set Setpoint1, Ramp Rate 1, Setpoint 3, Ramp Rate 3 values (in °C). Note: The Dwell time between the ramp segments is fixed to 2 minutes and can be changed only manually currently.
7.       Hit the Start button to start the temperature program.

Temperature-Programmed XPS

Before starting

  1. Mount sample on a PBN sample holder. E-beam sample holders distort XPS spectra upon flowing electric current.
  2. Make sure that that current flowing through the PBN heater is not affecting thermocouple readings.  Make a short test with current ca. 0.8A set for a short period of time. While increasing current to ca. 0.8 A and decreasing it to 0A, watch the temperature reading. If up-down variation in the temperature reading is following increase-decrease in the preset current, thermocouple readings must be fixed. Check the grounding. Sample should be grounded, as well as one pole of the heater. Sometimes to remove and place whole sample carrier back on the manipulator can improve contacts on thermocouple wires.
  3. If possible, try limited temperature ramp on a sample which cannot be damaged by impropriate heating, such as crystal substrate during cleaning cycle. If the temperature ramp is not linear, check limit values set for power supply. Check also if correct PID parameters are loaded to PID controller memory. If necessary, retune PID parameters.

SES sequence set up

An example of sequence used for Temperature programmed XPS can be found in PBACH7 PC:
D:\Users\BACH\FIRB\Dec2014 DBP on Ag(110)\SeqTimeResolvedPES.seq

Regions C1s_Fixed (fixed mode, 10s) and Br3d_Fixed (fixed mode, 8s) were selected during TP-XPS. Period for the acquisition was about 21s.

Other regions serve for calibrations. C1s_swept and Br3d_swept regions were created by copying *_fixed regions and selecting swept mode instead of fixed mode. Both swept and fixed regions are typically measured before a TP-XPS measurement. Their ratio serves as intensity calibration curve for the fixed mode, as each energy channel in fixed mode has different sensitivity. The FE_swept region should be set for kinetic energy of the Fermi edge and serves for binding energy scale calibration.

Acquiring TP-XPS

  1. Make sure that Io and T (temperature) external signals are selected to be recorded together with photoemission regions. SES -> Set-up -> Signals -> tick Io, T. In the sequence, select region -> Edit and make sure that signals are selected.
  2. Select regions to be measured during the temperature ramp (Typically those in fixed mode). 
  3. Sweep sequence in “Add dimension” and “Repeat until stopped” mode.
  4. Start “Temperature to SES” program on PBACH5 PC; enable analog output (under Settings tab; it should be enabled by default); if desired, enable temperature program in Temperature program tab; hit Start button to start temperature recording and temperature program, if selected.
  5. If temperature monitor only is selected, one can check temperature reading in SES software, for example in Calibration-> Voltages-> View -> Signals
  6. Run SES acquisition
  7.  Start manually temperature ramp/program (unless Temperature program in Temperature to SES software is selected).
  8. When the temperature ramp/program is finished, stop the acquisition from Sequence-> Stop after sequence.

Data postprocessing

  1. Normalize to Io
  2. Normalize intensities in fixed mode according the intensity in swept mode
  3. Calibrate binding energy scale
  4. (Linearize and interpolate data along the time/temperature scale)

Controlling the temperature of the crystat

 Connecting LakeShore (Model 218) temperature monitor to the PID box allows controlling cryostat temperature during LN2 cooling.

Connecting LakeShore to PID

  1. Close Cold Finger if it is running and switch off the LakeShore unit.
  2. Disconnect thermocouple from the PID box.
  3. Connect LakeShore’s analog output 1 to PID’s thermocouple input (see pictures below).
  4. Connect Cold finger heater cables.
  5. Load PID parameters for the Cold finger; recipe Elind ColdFinger LN2 (see Eurotherm iTools for more details).
  6. Switch on LakeShore, activate (set up) LakeShores’s analog output 1 (see below).

Cable PID Lakeshore

Setting LakeShore Model 218 analog output

Note: In order to activate and set-up the analog output, the unit must be in local mode otherwise it doesn’t respond to the front panel buttons. If it is in the remote mode (indicated by R letter in the top-right corner of the device LCD screen), close the Cold Finger if it is running, then press Local key (number 9) on the device pront panel. The R letter should disappear.
  1. Press Local (number 9) key on the Lakeshore front panel.
  2. Press Analog Outputs (number 0) on the front panel.
  3. Select output 1, press Enter.
  4. Select Input or Off if you want to activate or deactivate the analog output. Press Enter to confirm.
  5. Select Input 5, Units K, Bipol.-off.
  6. In settings set 0V -> 0K, 10V -> 500K. Always confirm with Enter. (Note that the same parameters are set for PID input in Elind ColdFinger LN2 recipe configuration file.)

Disconnecting LakeShore from PID

  1. Set PID from "AUTO" to "MAN" (press the circular button on the left) and set output to 0 (press and hold down arrow).
  2. Close Cold Finger, if opened.
  3. Press Local (number 9) key on the Lakeshore front panel.
  4. Set the analog output 1 to OFF (see previous section, points 2-4).
  5. Disconnect cable form LakeShore’s analog output and PID’s Tc input.
  6. Connect thermocouple to the PID box.
  7. Load PID parameters other than those for the cold finger (for example recipe Elind PBN no LN2).

TP-XPS In brief (instructions for trained users)

FOR SORENSEN (prep chamber)
In the PID controller select: Sorensen, voltage, man (V is read); Opprr=0.03
In the Sorensen controller: increase the value of V and I by turning the wheel of the correct n of turns

For ELIND (main chamber)
In the PID controller select: Elind, auto (reads K), sprr (e.g. 0.5K/s or 1.0 K/s)
In the ELIND controller: I and V set to 0 
  1. Eurotherm iTools: SP: SPrr (e.g. 0.05 K/s); PRESS REMOVE; CLOSE itools (Elind should be in REMOTE)
  2. Open Temperature Program.VI (desktop); Settings: select COM2 from the menu; press START; Check that the T reading is correct
  3. SES: Signals: add Dev1_a12_in (3rd signal) (check that T is acquired in Calibration Voltages)
  4. Start the SES acquisition: Add Dimension, repeat until stopped, Spectra acquired in FIXED mode (e.g. 30 s acquistion/spectrum)
  5. Select AUTO in the front panel of the PID, you should read the temperature. Change MANUALLY the SP (set point) using the arrows on the front panel of the PID  close to the manipulator of the main chamber (SP>Tfinal)
  6. To stop the acquistion you can change the SP to a lower value during the acquisition once the max T has been reached, stop after sequence SES:
    1. Make sure that the top left  rocker switch (6) is in the position  UP (OPERATOR mode) not down (simple user mode)
    2. Press the button PAGE (first button down left with a page symbol) several times until SP appears
    3. Press the button SCROLL (second button with the circular arrow) several times until SPrr appears
    4. Change the ramp rate to 1K/s using the arrow and wait some seconds until it blinks)
    5. Press PAGE+SCOLL togheter to reach again the main menu
    6. Change the SP to 300K using the arrows

Rampa in T programmando il PID da software:

Programmer Editor
Sequent Parameters
-       Impostare rrate 60K/min  = 1K/sec
-       Temperatura max
-       Tempo di attesa DUR
-       Temperatura min in discesa
IMPORTANTE mettere OFF il rrate da SP rrt
PER AVVIARE tasto destro su Eutotherm

Scaldare con PID nella camera di preparazione senza termocoppia

IMPORTANTE rimettere DIVERSO DA OFF il rrate da SP rrt
Selezionare Sorensen con il pin sul PID, poi metterlo  in Voltage (da manual, pin sulla destra)
Sorensen : Voltage fattore 1.3 rispetto all’Elind
Set V=18.2 V  (24.8 sul sorensen)    // per all metal V=16 V (21.8 sul Sorensen); questo corrisponde a circa 900K (per preparare hBNG)
Orr= 0.03  ->1 K/sec   in salita, poi attesa in T per 2’
Orr=0.1 ->3 K/sec in discesa
Per settare Orr premi primo tasto a sinistra e cerca Olist, poi secondo tasto a sinistra per cercare orr (output ramp rate), quindi con le frecce mettere il voltaggio desiderato.
Last Updated on Tuesday, 11 May 2021 21:37